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A sensor is a device that detects and responds accordingly to some kind of input from its physical environment. The input can be light, heat, touch and the rest. Sensors are what makes a smart phone react accordingly to its surroundings. Sensors are also known by some as a smart phone’s sense organ, similar to that of a human being. Below are the follow sensors you can find on a smartphone:
Magnetometer/GPS: Magnetometer which powers the Compass and GPS is use to determine the direction, strength and relative change of a magnetic field of a particular Location. Simply Put, it helps determine your location at any given time.
Gryroscope: Is the sensor that helps determine which position your phone is in at any given time. The gyroscope Sensor is responsible for switch your phone screen to landscape mode when you turn it and Switching it back to portrait when you turn it back up.
Accelerometer: Like the name says determines the speeds at which your phone is moving, or rather accelerating. This is what is use by various maps app that determine how long it would take for you to get to your location given your current speed.
Proximity Sensor: determines how close your device is to a physical object. This is what turns your phone screen off when you place your phone on your ear while on a call to lower battery consumption and keep you from accidentally pressing something on-screen with your ear.
There are also other sensors, some of which you might know like the fingerprint sensor and face sensor popularly know as Face ID. Then there are some others you might not know, like the pedometer, heart rate senor etc. You can check all the sensors your phone has along with the hardware components by simply following the steps below.
There are also other apps that can be used to do this but this is my go to app to check sensors and hardware on Android as well as iPhones and other iOS devices.